Parallel Computing FAQ
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This article discuss about some of most frequently asked questions about Parallel Computing....

1.What is parallel computing?


Parallel computing is a form of computation in which many calculations are carried out simultaneously, operating on the principle that large problems can often be divided in to smaller once,which are then solved concurrently.


2.Different forms of parallel computing?
          
There are several different forms of parallel computing: bit level, instruction level, data, and task parallelism.


3.What is Amdahl's law?

The maximum possible speed-up of a program as a result of parallelization is observed as Amdahl's law.


4.What is serial computation?

Traditionally, computer software has been written for serial computation. To solve a problem, an algorithm is constructed and implemented as a stream of instructions.


5.How can perform the good parallel program performance?
              
Parallel computer programs are more difficult to write than sequential ones, because concurrency introduces several new classes of potential software bugs, of which race conditions are the most common.


6.Different levels of parallel computing?

Parallel computers can be roughly classified according to the level at which the hardware supports parallelism,with multi-core and multiprocessor computers having multiple processing elements within a single machine, while clusters,MPPs,and grids use multiple computers to work on the same task.


7.Meaning of a computer-bounded program?

Maintaining everything else constant, increasing the clock frequency decreases the average time it takes to execute an instruction. An increase in frequency thus decreases runtime for all computation-bounded programs.


8.What is Moore's low?

Moore's law is the empirical observation that transistor density in a microprocessor doubles every 18 to 24 months. Despite power consumption issues, and repeated and predictions of its end. Moore’s law is still in effect.


9.Explain the power consumption chip?

The power consumption chip is given by the equation p=c*v*v*f, where p is Power PC is the capacitance being switched per clock cycle is a voltage, and F is the processor frequency.


10.Explain classes of parallel computing?

Parallel computers con be roughly classified according to the level at which the hardware supports parallelism. This classification is broadly analogous to the distance between basic computing nodes.


11.What is multi core computing?

The multiple instructions per cycle from one instruction stream(thread) in contrast, a multicore processor can issue multiple instructions per cycle from multiple instruction streams.


12.Pseudo-multicorcism explains?

Each core can issue multiple instructions from one instructions stream. Simultaneous multithreading(of which Intel's Hyper Threading is the best known)was an early form of pseudo-multicoreism.


13.Where use in reconfigurable computing?

Reconfigurable computing is the use of a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) as a co-processor to a general-purpose computer.An FPGA is in essence, a computer chip that can rewire itself for a given task.


14.Explain socket stealers?

The DRC computer corporation,when we first walked into AMD,they called us the socket stealers.


15.Where use in computer graphics processing?

Computer graphics processing is a field dominated by data parallel operations-particularly linear algebra matrix operations.


16.The new programming languages are using computer graphics?

The several new programming language and platforms have been built to do general purpose computation on GPUs with both Nvidia and AMD releasing programming environments with CUDA and CTM respectively.


17.GPU programming languages are?

The GPU programming languages are BrookGPU, peakStream, and Rapidmind.


18.What is ASICS?

An ASIC is specific to a given application,it can be fully optimized for that application.


19.Explain two classes of parallel computers?

  1. Multicore computing:A multicore processor is processor that include multiple execution units on the chip.
  2. Specialized parallel computers:The parallel computing there are specialized parallel devices that remain niche areas of interest.


20.Explain types of parallelism?

  1. Bit-level parallelism:Speed-up in computer architecture was driven by doubling computer word size-the amount of information the processor can manipulate per cycle.
  2. Data parallelism:Data parallelism is parallelism inherent in program loops,which focuses on distributing the data across different computing nodes to be processed in parallel.


21.What is instruction pipeline?

Advances in instruction-level parallelism dominated computer architecture from the modern processors have multistage instruction pipelines.


22.Explain the five stage of RISC procedure?

Instruction fetch,decode,execute,memory access,and write back.


23.Explain perform the carry-instruction?

The 8-bit processor must add two 16-bit integers,the processor must first add the 8 lower-order bits from each integer using the standard addition instruction,then add the 8 higher-order bits using an add-with-carry instruction and the carry bit from the lower order addition.


24.What is frequency scaling?

Parallelism has been employed for many years,mainly in high-performance computing,but interest in it has grown lately due to the physical constraints preventing frequency scaling.


25.What is thread?

A thread in computer is short for a thread of execution.Threads are sometimes referred to as lightweight processes.


26.What is multi threading?

In multi threading system each application program may have more than one thread executing.


27.What is molecular dynamic parallel programming language?

Peta-flop RIKEN MDGRAPE-3 machine which uses custom ASIC for molecular dynamic parallel programming language.


28.Explain message passing interface?

POSIX Threads and OPENMP are two of most widely used shared memory APIs,whereas Message Passing Interface(MPI)is the most widely used message passing system API.


29.Which concept used in programming parallel programs?

Future Concept.


30.What is instruction-level parallelism?

With the advent of x86-64 architectures,have 64-bit processors become commonplace the result of the program,this is known as instruction-level parallelism.


31.Explaing multicore processors?

As power consumption by computers has become a concern in recent years,parallel computing has become the dominant paradigm in computer architecture mainly in the form of multicore processors.


32.The parallel computing how ever the program solved?

Parallel computing,on the other hand,uses multiple simultaneously to solve a problem.


33.The major different causes in instruction pipeline?
  1. Resource complasion.
  2. Data dependency conflict.
  3. Branch diffcults.     


34.The different action processor perform in instruction?

In the pipeline corresponds to a different action the processor perform on that instruction in that stage;a processor with an N-stage pipeline can have up to N different instructions at different stages of completion.


35.What is data parallelism?

Data parallelism is parallelism inherent in program loops,which focuses on distributing the data across different computing  nodes to be processed in parallel.


36.What is bit level parallesm?

From the advent of very-large-scale integration computer-chip fabrication technology, speed-up in computer architecture was driven by doubling computer word size.


37.What is two decides in general process computing?

The 4-bit microprocessors were replaced with 8-bit,then 16-bit,then 32-bit microprocessors.This trend generally came to an end with the introduction of 32-bit processors.


38.What is open MPP?

The openHMPP directive-based programming model offers a syntax to efficiently offload computations on hardware accelerators and tooptimize data movement to/from the hardware memory.


39.Explain RISC instruction?

Each stage in the pipeline corresponds to a different action the processor performs on that instruction  the processor performs on that instruction in that stage,a processor with an N-stage pipeline can have up to different instructions at different stages of completion.


40.Explain word size using bit-level parallelism?

Increasing the word size reduces the number of instructions the processor must execute to perform an operation on variables whose sizes are greater than the length of the word.


41.Distributed memory was mainly use?

Distributed memory uses message passing.


42.Shared memory program is used by?

Shared memory programming languages communicate by manipulating shared memory variables.


43.Explain class based on a parallel program models?

Concurrent programming languages,libraries,APIs,and parallel programming models have been created for programming parallel computers.


44.What is simultaneous multithreading?

Simultaneous multithreading(of which Intel's HyperThreading is the best known)was an early form of pseudo-multicoreism.


45.Explain specialized parallel computers?

Within parallel computing,there are specialized parallel devices that remain niche areas of interest.While not domain-specific they tend to be applicable to only a few parallel problems.


46.Explain hardware description languages?
               
FPGAs can be programmed with hardware description languages such as VHDL or verilog.


47.HDL language is using in which c programming language?
               
The C to HDL language are Mitrion-C,Impulse C,DIME-C and Handel-C.


48.What is open CL?
               
The technology consortium Khronos Group has released the open CL specification,which is a framework for writing programs that execute accross platforms consisting of CPUS andGPUS.Apple,Intel,Nvidia and others are supporting OpenCL.


49.What is OpenHMMP?
               
The OpenHMMP directive-based programming model offers a syntax to efficiently offload computations on hardware accelerators and to optimize data movement to/form the hardware memory.


50.Example of molecular dynamic parallel programming languages?
            
One example is the peta-flop RIKEN MDGRAPE-3 machine which uses custom ASICs for molecular dynamic parallel programming language.      





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Alpha Jose
I complete my graduation BCA from Santigiri College, Vazhithala.
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